Ancient Geography: The Discovery of the World in Classical by Duane W. Roller

By Duane W. Roller

The final devoted e-book on historical geography was once released greater than sixty years in the past. due to the fact then new texts have seemed (such because the Artemidoros palimpsest), and new variations of present texts (by geographical specialists who contain Agatharchides, Eratosthenes, Pseudo-Skylax and Strabo) were produced. there was a lot archaeological study, specially on the perimeters of the Greek global, and a extra actual realizing of historic geography and geographers has emerged. the subject is for that reason past due a clean and sustained therapy. In delivering accurately that, Duane curler explores vital subject matters like wisdom of the realm within the Bronze Age and Archaic sessions; Greek growth into the Black Sea and the West; the Pythagorean suggestion of the earth as a globe; the discovery of geography as a self-discipline by way of Eratosthenes; Polybios the explorer; Strabo’s well-known Geographica; the travels of Alexander the good; Roman geography; Ptolemy and overdue antiquity; and the cultural reawakening of old geographical wisdom within the Renaissance, together with Columbus’ use of old assets.

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Caimans and crocodiles cruise the maze of rivers and unmarked canals, and hundreds of herons, ibises, egrets, and other marsh birds nest and feed along the silted banks. Mangrove swamps are often havens for water birds: cormorants, frigate birds, pelicans, and herons. The larger birds tend to nest up high in the canopy, while the smaller ones nestle in the underbrush. The Gulf of Nicoya is particularly popular among frigate birds and brown pelicans, as well as all manner of terns and seagulls. indd 37 9/17/10 12:03 AM COSTA RICA IN DEPTH The Lay of the Land 2 This is also a land of high volcanic and seismic activity.

Light, long pants and A jaguar. long-sleeved shirts are your best bet. Comfortable hiking boots are a real boon, except where heavy rubber boots are necessary. Avoid loud colors; the better you blend in with your surroundings, the better your chances are of spotting wildlife. W Be patient. The jungle isn’t on a schedule. However, your best shots at seeing forest fauna are in the very early morning and late afternoon hours. indd 38 9/17/10 12:03 AM W Read up. Familiarize yourself with what you’re most likely to see.

You can find these lowland rainforests along the southern Pacific coast and Osa Peninsula, as well as along the Caribbean coast. Corcovado, Cahuita, and Manuel Antonio national parks, as well as the Manzanillo-Gandoca Wildlife Refuge, are fine examples of lowland rainforests. At higher altitudes you’ll find Costa Rica’s famed cloud forests. Here the steady flow of moist air meets the mountains and creates a nearly constant mist. Epiphytes—resourceful plants that live cooperatively on the branches and trunks of other trees—grow abundantly in the cloud forests, where they must extract moisture and nutrients from the air.

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