By JT Houghton, LG Meira Filho, DJ Griggs and K Maskell (Eds).
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Extra info for An Introduction to Simple Climate Models used in the IPCC Second Assessment Report (IPCC Technical Paper II - February 1997)
3), the relationship between emissions and atmospheric aerosol loading is assumed to be linear. Although this is not exactly true, the error so introduced is overwhelmed by uncertainties in the link between atmospheric aerosol loading and global mean radiative forcing. 5). 12). In the latter case, total anthropogenic sulphur emissions will increase from 75 TgS in 1990 to 147 TgS in 2100. 2 W m-2), then is held constant. 5 27 Calculating Radiative Forcing From Concentrations Given the concentrations of globally uniform greenhouse gases, the direct radiative forcing can be computed by using simple formulae which provide a close fit to the results of detailed radiative transfer calculations.
1992). When the climate sensitivity is adjusted to give reasonably good agreement between the two models for temperature, the thermal expansion estimate from the SCM is greater than that in the AOGCM. This again implies that there is a greater flux of heat into the ocean in the one-dimensional model than in this particular AOGCM. The reason for this was not resolved at the time of publication of the SAR WGI. Note that when the heat flux into the ocean is larger (smaller) the surface temperature change is smaller (larger) and the thermal expansion is larger (smaller) (Harvey, 1994).
There are four key parameters in the upwelling-diffusion model (and the variant shown in Figure 9): (a) the infrared radiative damping factor, which governs the change in infrared emission to space with temperature. , (1995) and Bintanja (1995). The oceanic part of this model is a two-dimensional upwelling diffusion model, in that it contains both vertical heat diffusion and the thermohaline overturning (as in the onedimensional upwelling-diffusion model). This model has horizontal resolution and includes parametrizations of northsouth heat transport, as well as simple representations of sea ice and land snow cover.