An Introduction to Chemical Metallurgy by R. H. Parker and D. W. Hopkins (Auth.)

By R. H. Parker and D. W. Hopkins (Auth.)

Contents: creation to Thermodynamics Entropy, unfastened strength and Chemical Equilibrium options response Kinetics Electrochemistry Interfacial Phenomena Extraction and Refining of Metals Corrosion and Electrodeposition

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In other words, a gas always tends to "fill" any chamber in which it is placed. We know from 40 AN INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL METALLURGY Tap Gas-filled chamber Evacuated chamber (a) . · • ■— ; · ' . · · · · (b) FIG. 2. The movement of gas molecules into an evacuated chamber. experience that the molecules in the right-hand chamber will never of their own accord all move into the left-hand chamber leaving the right-hand chamber empty. Condition (b) is more probable than condition (a), and is more disordered than condition (a).

Fusion than for heats of transformation in the solid state because the rapid rate of cooling might inhibit the transformation, particularly in diffusion-controlled transformations. Direct measurements of heats of transformation can be carried out by a similar technique to those for heat capacities, and the heats of order-disorder transformations and precipitation reactions in solid alloys have been determined. INTRODUCTION TO THERMODYNAMICS 37 Where high temperature calorimetric measurements are to be made, problems of uniform temperature control and refractory materials for construction of vessels to hold reactive materials at high temperatures become very important.

Q = w, asAC/ = 0. g. a steam engine), we can define the efficiency of the machine as the fraction of heat absorbed by the machine which can be converted into work. S. Carnot (1824) proposed a theorem which stated that all machines working thermodynamically reversibly in cycles between the same temperatures of source and sink have the same efficiency. 5, and the "temperatures of source and sink" refer, in the case of a steam engine, to the temperature of the steam supplied to the engine and the temperature of the steam when the engine has completed its work respectively.

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