Albanian grammar, with exercises, chrestomathy, and by Martin Camaj

By Martin Camaj

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Interaction of Morphology and Syntax: Case Studies in Afroasiatic

The current quantity bargains with hitherto unexplored matters at the interplay of morphology and syntax. those chosen and invited papers mostly drawback Cushitic and Chadic languages, the least-described individuals of the Afroasiatic relations. 3 papers within the quantity discover a number of typological features throughout a whole language relations or department, whereas others specialise in one or languages inside a kinfolk and the consequences in their constructions for the family members, the phylum, or linguistic typology as an entire.

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Any past written form of an English word and its meaning(s), for instance, can hardly be considered as a starting point. Historical linguistics provides a sense of the infinite regressus toward hypothetical anterior states of any known language. Moreover, the notion of grammaticalization path presupposes that any starting point must be “concrete”, that is, “primitive”, in compliance with a certain representation of human cognitive evolution which is projected upon the axis of language evolution.

The handshape in Figure 2 thus represents a compound of the ‘man’ and ‘woman’ morphemes. The first part of the sign in Figure 2 is a nonproductive ‘prefix’ indicating something like ‘parental relatives’, and so after the prefix, raising only the thumb indicates ‘father’, the prefix plus a raised little finger indicates ‘mother’, and both together as in the sign in Figure 2 indicates ‘motherand-father’. Again, though not at first glance transparent, this non-transparency does not mean that the sign is not ‘truly’ iconic, only that there is a combination of iconic, metonymic, and arbitrary components that make the sign difficult to interpret without some explanation.

This paper attempts to heuristically question some of the premises of such research by putting, so to speak, grammaticalization to the iconicity test. 2. How “concrete” can a word be? Current usage among proponents of iconicity theory considers some lexical items to be more “concrete” than others, and those items are the ones that are the most likely to exhibit iconic features, such as sharing some common properties with their referents, replicating through their relative position in a sentence the Putting grammaticalization to the iconicity test mutual relations of their referents in reality, or showing common properties within a particular semantic field.

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