By T. S. Cale, F. S. Pintchovski
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Additional resources for Advanced Metallization for Ulsi Applications
J/K/mol). 6 J/mol). 4 J/mol).
99 T cal. ,QQ , ? 4) 1S = -90'750 + 2 1 ·99 = -66,561 c a l . 3) w i l l not proceed in the forward d i r e c t i o n at 827°C, i . e . nickel w i l l not form nickel oxide in a steam atmosphere at 827°C. ™ ,« « . 4) w i l l take place in the forv/ard d i r e c t i o n at 827°C, i . e . chromium w i l l form chromic oxide in a steam atmos phere at 827°C. In other words, nickel w i l l not oxidise in steam at 827°C, but chromium w i l l . However, because of the physical and chemical character i s t i c s of the f i l m formed on the chromium surface, the reaction w i l l cease in a yery short time.
90 cal/deg. Now consider the surroundings. The irreversible process is able to transfer heat reversibly to the isothermal reservoir. e. 833°C. AS surroundings Heat absorbed by the surroundings Temperature of the surroundings The Second Law of Thermodynamics : Entropy and Free Energy 41 Now, total heat evolved from the system = ΔΗ, + AFL + ΔΗ-, where ΔΗ,, ΔΗ ? 0 dT 1106 = 1,610 cal. ΔΗ2 = -3,050 cal . 0 dT r 1336 = -1 ,150 cal. *. Total heat evolved from the system = 1,610 - 3,050 - 1,150 = -2,590 cal.