Abrams' Clinical Drug Therapy: Rationales for Nursing by Sandra Smith, Geralyn Frandsen

By Sandra Smith, Geralyn Frandsen

This well known center nursing pharmacology textbook presents precise assurance of nursing interventions for drug treatment with similar rationales. hugely praised for its geared up and readable presentation, the textual content explains the "why" in the back of each one nursing motion, and emphasizes how medicines paintings otherwise in numerous sufferers. The tenth version has a brand new clean layout and method with an extra specialise in sufferer protection built-in into the textual content.

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Extra resources for Abrams' Clinical Drug Therapy: Rationales for Nursing Practice (10th Edition)

Example text

Excretion Excretion refers to elimination of a drug from the body. Effective excretion requires adequate functioning of the circulatory system and of the organs of excretion (kidneys, bowel, lungs, and skin). Most drugs are excreted by the kidneys and eliminated (unchanged or as metabolites) in the urine. Some drugs or metabolites are excreted in bile and then eliminated in feces; others are excreted in bile, reabsorbed from the small intestine, returned to the liver (called enterohepatic recirculation), metabolized, and eventually excreted in urine.

Thus, recommended dosages are intended only as guidelines for individualizing dosages. Even if the recommended dose controls a patient’s symptoms, he or she may need a special loading dose at the beginning of drug therapy. This dose, which is larger than the regular prescribed daily dosage of a medication, is used to attain a more rapid therapeutic blood level of the drug.

The ER is also important in the production of hormones by glandular cells and the production of plasma proteins by liver cells. Most proteins produced by the ribosomes are released into the cytosol where they act as enzymes or structural proteins of the cell. The Golgi complex stores the substances produced by the ER. It also packages these substances into secretory granules, which then move out of the Golgi complex into the cytoplasm and, after a stimulus, are released from the cell. Mitochondria generate energy for cellular activities and require oxygen.

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