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Extra resources for A Handbook of Statistics
Knowing this, answer the following questions: Exercise 1) What is the probability of selecting a 9 from a deck of cards? A: There are 9 heart cards in a standard deck, one for each suit. Therefore, the probability of selecting a nine is 4/52. 2) What is the probability of selecting a face card? A: There are four face cards for every suit in a standard deck. Thus the probability of selecting a face card is 16/52. 3) What is the probability of selecting a 9 and a heart card? A: In this case, there is only one card that is both a 9 and a heart card – the nine of hearts.
The weatherman reports a 65% chance of rain tomorrow). Additionally, uncertainty may not be universal. People can have different assessments of the chances of an event happening or not. That means, while you and I are uncertain about the chances of rain tomorrow, a weatherman may be quite certain about rain since he or she studies the weather for a living. If uncertainty can vary across different people and groups, then there must exist a way to quantify uncertainty like we do with height, weight, and time.
Finally, we learned about the concepts of independence and conditional probability. But what do we do in situations where it is not possible to write out the sample space and assign probabilities to simple events? What if we were interested in calculating the probability of selecting a person at random that has a specific weight from a large population3? Or what if we were interested in picking a single, specific grain of sand from a beach? In these situations it is impossible to write out a sample space.